David Birnbaum Metaphysics

The initial and partial
hard physics proof
for Potentialism Theory

Lambda ≈ Dark Energy ≈ Cosmological Constant ≈ Q4P, per Summa Theory.

Lambda = salient Q4P



the Cosmological Constant


Einstein (1917) hypothesized that there was a dynamic countering gravity's pull on the planets; else the planets would crunch together.

Einstein identified this dynamic as the Cosmological Constant.

The world scientific community would later call this force Lambda. 

In reality (per Potentialism Theory) Einstein (1917) had the concept correct, but the seqence/alignment backwards.

The correct seqence/alignment is:
1. Lambda is driving the universe to expand outward;
2. Gravity is putting the brakes on Lambda.

Now, Lambda is salient Q4P,
or in other words
Lambda is Q4P somewhat ‘showing its hand’.
(Elusive) Lambda, in turn, is manifested 'saliently' via Dark Energy.

Lambda, of course, is just the ‘visible’
"tip of the iceberg" of infinite Quest for Potential (Q4P).

Thus, while Volume I of my metaphysics series (Summa Metaphysica) proposing Quest for Potential is copyrighted 1986, Einstein discerned Lambda in 1917; he did not realize - and never realized - that he had hit 'the mother lode' (i.e. the 'driver of the Cosmic Order').

For the record,

In 1929,
Einstein (in error) rejected his own Cosmological Constant concept, calling it his 'biggest blunder'. [Actually, he was right the first time (1917).]

In the 1990s,
New studies confirm that the Cosmological Constant is the best fit for Dark Energy, and offers the most precise and accurate estimate yet of its value.

In 2018,
The current standard model of cosmology is known as the  Lambda-CDM model .

However, maintream science, in parallel to Einstein (1917), still has the  sequence/alignment of the dynamics backwards: See line 4 near top: "In reality...


As of Fall 2018,  in  physical cosmology and astronomy, Dark Energy (Lambda) is considered an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, and which is accelerating the expansion of the universe. [Summa / Potentialism Theory, of course, hypothesizes same (1988 →) for Q4P.]

Discerned, Identified, Calculated & Measured

Lambda = salient Q4P


Scientifically Discerned

The scientific community & 
the inadvertent 100+ year hard science unfolding/discovery 
of key components of Potentialism Theory


So, Lambda ≈ Dark Energy ≈ Cosmological Constant ≈ Q4P, per Summa Theory.

Lambda was discerned / identified initially by Einstein in 1917,
but has emerged (by 2018) front & center in astrophysics
via the 'Lambda-CDM Model'
(the standard model of Big Bang cosmology).  

Meaning, Q4P is de facto embedded in - and integral-to - the current standard model of cosmology

re: The Cosmological Constant  ≈ Lambda  ≈  Dark Energy ≈ Q4P, per Summa

1) It was introduced, discerned & calculated (as noted, initially by Einstein, 1917).

2) The best current measurements indicate that Dark Energy 
contributes 68.3 percent of the total energy 
of the present-day observable universe.

3) Dark Energy's density has been precisely measured
(apparently ~7 x 10-30 g/cm3)

4) It is clearly key in driving the universe forward.

5) The current standard model scientific theory has Lambda literally starting its title 

So, scientifically measured on multiple fronts, placed front & center in the standard model title, and generally accepted as driving the universe forward.

Is not Lambda thus direct 1:1 corroboration of a key slice of Potentialism Theory?

Lambda ≈ Dark Energy ≈ Cosmological Constant 
is thus the scientifically (measurable /measured) manifestation of Q4P.

Not bad having key components one's (revolutionary) metaphysics/cosmology theory de facto  scientifically discerned over a 101 year period (1917 to date).

So, Einstein tripped-over Q4P in 1917, but misread its overarching power and centrality.

And the scientific community at-large has yet to grasp Lambda's full dimensions.


The Cosmological Constant's identification (1917) by Einstein (hence, the discovery of a 'physical' manifestation of Summa's Q4P),
is the rough equivalent of Sir Arthur Eddington's (May 29, 1919) solar eclipse proof of Einstein's curvature of space time theory.

Except that, as noted, in Einstein's (Cosmological Constant) case, he radically missed the full import.


Psychologically and scientifically, Einstein was fixated on gravity as the central motif of the Cosmic Order; thus, to Einstein, other dynamics - like Lambda - essentially play supporting or reaction roles.

However, from my Potentialism-centric - and hopefully objective -  view of the Cosmic Order, whereas gravity (a physical dynamic) is very central in our universe, it is trumped in importance/impact/centrality by overarching Q4P - the overarching metaphysical dynamic of the Cosmic Order.


I respectfully believe that Lambda crucially moves the needle on Potentialism - from  theory to partially scientifically discerned.
And, indeed, the Lambda-CDM Model is more precisely, the Q4P-CDM Model.  

In a twist of fate, Potentialism Theory was partially/inadvertently discerned & partially validated (1917) by scientific great Einstein - before the Potentialism Metaphysics/Cosmology theory was even conceptualized/presented/disseminated (1988 and onwards) by Outsider/Outlier Birnbaum. Rumor has it that I was not even born until 1950. And via scientific advances in understanding the Cosmological Constant  ≈  Dark Energy - which is actually Q4P Energy, the academic establishment has advanced our scientific knowledge of Potentialism Theory, and to some partial extent, validated it.


Thus, the mainstream academic community may want the interloper (Birnbaum) to stop messing in their turf with his over-the-top theory; but they have unwittingly albeit scientifically - and from multiple angles - given significant scientific evidence and buttress - over a 100-year span - to Summa's avant-garde theory (1988 →).

Put another way, the establishment academic community has radically strengthened  Potentialism's position on the metaphysics/cosmology chessboard. With respect, there is no known theory which can successfully challenge Potentialism.

Q4P Hiding in Plain Sight

Lambda = salient Q4P

The Misnomer
'Dark Energy'

The correct appellation would be: 
 Salient Q4P Energy  

'Dark Energy' is meaningless in this astrophysics arena;
there is nothing dark about it

'Salient Q4P Energy' ( 'SQE' ) is meaningful - and precise.

The Boss

Lambda = salient Q4P


an integral part
of the over-arching cosmic dynamic


Einstein and scientists to follow tend to view Lambda as a stand-alone dynamic;
however, Lambda is just a salient portion of overarching Q4P;
and that is part of the reason that Einstein et al. have such great difficulty with Lambda.

Q4P reigns supreme
and Lambda is just a salient segment of it.



David Birnbaum Philosophy